CONCLUSION ON COWPEAS BISCUITS ON NUTRITIONAL PROFILE
5. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION
The present study entitled ‘Effect of supplementation of cowpea biscuits on nutritional profile of selected preschool children’ was studied and results derived from the present study are summarized and concluded in this chapter.
Hundred grams of each of cowpea biscuits with 70 per cent incorporation of cowpea flour and refined wheat flour biscuits provided 500 Kcal each day each child and was therefore selected for supplementation.
The overall acceptability score for cowpea biscuits with 70 per cent incorporation with cowpea flour and refined wheat flour was 3.73 and 4.33, respectively. Both the cowpea biscuits with 70 per cent incorporation of cowpea flour as well as refined wheat flour were highly acceptable with respect to various sensory characteristics colour, appearance, flavour, taste, texture, aftertaste and overall acceptability.
Upon nutritional composition analysis of cowpea biscuits with 70 per cent incorporation of cowpea flour was found to be significantly higher in protein (15.2±0.1 g %); ash (1.3±0 g %); fibre (4.4±0.2 g %); and zinc (3.1±0.2 mg/100g) as compared to that of refined wheat flour biscuits protein (12.2±0.5 g %); ash (0.6±0.1 g %); fibre (1.5±0.1 g %); and zinc (0.1±0.1 mg %) was found on as is basis.
On dry weight basis, cowpea biscuits with 70 per cent incorporation of cowpea flour was found to be significantly higher in protein (15.7±0.1 g %); ash (1.3±0 g %); fibre (4.5±0.2 g %); and zinc (3.2±0.2 mg/100g) as compared to that of refined wheat flour biscuits protein (12.8±0.5 g %); ash (0.7±0.1 g %); fibre (1.6±0.1 g %); and zinc (0.1±0.1 mg %) was found.
This indicates cowpea incorporation leads in increase in the essential nutrients such as protein, fiber and minerals (zinc).
Results of nutritional composition analysis revealed that both the biscuits cowpea as well as refined wheat flour biscuits supply more than one third of the RDA of protein and energy for children in the age group of 3-5 years.
However, the cost of cowpea biscuits was found to be higher than that of refined wheat flour because of the lower availability in production of pulses. The cost of cowpea biscuits can be overcome by increasing in the production of cowpea biscuits.
There was no effect of supplementation of cowpea biscuits as well as refined wheat flour biscuits for 90 days as compared to non supplemented group on anthropometric outcomes of nutritional status viz. weight, height and MUAC of children. The reasons of no effect could be shorter period of intervention; the age of children i.e. pre-school who have slower rate of growth; and significant number of children were in the category of mild and moderate malnutrition at baseline, employed in the study to see the change in the anthropometric measurements like weight, height and mid upper arm circumference.
Similarly, the effect of supplementation on the shift in malnutrition grades among children could not be seen in cowpea biscuits as well as refined wheat flour biscuits.
Limitation of present study is that biochemical method to assess protein energy malnutrition status should have been adopted to see the immediate effect of supplementation.
Based on the experiences of present study, the recommendation for future study is that the effect of supplementation of cowpea biscuits on nutritional status in case of children also be seen in context to micronutrient status. As there was non-significant difference was found in anthropometric measurements, therefore, longer period supplementation could enhance the growth potentials of malnourished children.